Englische Akronyme und Abkürzungen (nach Themen)
DIVING INTO ALPHABET SOUP - What's with all those letters?
by Linda Lee Walden - Reprinted with permission from the March 2001 issue of Dive Training magazine.
Do you know where the word "scuba" comes from? Although there are those that insist it is an acronym - a word derived from the first (or first few) letters of several words - for Some Come Up Barely Alive (purely in jest, mind you), the verifiable truth is that scuba is an acronym for Self-Contained Underwater Breathing Apparatus.
When even the name of our sport is shortened from a longer description, is it any wonder that our scuba language is liberally peppered with acronyms and abbreviations? Scuba "lingo" often becomes so embedded in our conversations that we forget the original meanings of our shortcut words. And pity the poor novice who wanders into a group of experienced divers or picks up a typical dive publication!
Auswahl nach Themen:
Scuba Training Agencies
Other Organizations and Activities
Scuba Training Agencies
- ACUC Association of Canadian Underwater Councils. Canadian and European certification agency
- ANDI American Nitrox Divers, Inc. N.Y.-based technical certification agency.
- BSAC British Sub Aqua Club. International certification agency based in the United Kingdom.
- CMAS Confederation Mondiale des Activites Subaquatiques, the World Underwater Federation. Federation of underwater organizations from a number of countries, including the United States, that organizes competitive water events (e.g., fin swimming, underwater hockey) in addition to offering recreational diving instruction.
- GUE Global Underwater Explorers. Florida-based cave and technical diving certification agency.
- HSA Handicapped Scuba Association. Worldwide independent certification agency for persons with disabilities and their able-bodied "dive buddies."
- IANTD International Association of Nitrox and Technical Divers. Recreational, cave and technical certification agency.
- IDA International Divers Association. Florida agency specializing in training beyond sport diving limits.
- IDEA International Diving Educators Association. Florida-based certification agency.
- ISEA International Scuba Educators Association. Florida-based certification agency.
- L.A. County Los Angeles County Department of Parks and Recreation, Underwater Unit. County-based scuba certification organization.
- MDEA Multinational Diving Educators Association. Tennessee-based certification agency.
- NACD National Association for Cave Diving. Trains and certifies cavern and cave divers.
- NASDS National Association of Scuba Diving Schools. International certification agency that merged with SSI in 1999.
- NASE/WASI National Academy of Scuba Educators/World Association of Scuba Instructors. Sister recreational scuba certification agencies based in Utah.
- NAUI National Association of Underwater Instructors. Not-for-profit recreational and technical certification agency based in Florida.
- NSS/CDS National Speleological Society/Cave Diving Section. Division of the cavers' society that trains and certifies cavern and cave divers.
- PADI Professional Association of Diving Instructors. Recreational certification agency based in California.
- PDIC Professional Diving Instructors Corporation International. Pennsylvania-based certification agency.
- PSA Professional Scuba Association. Extended-range scuba training.
- SDI Scuba Diving International. The recreational scuba training and certification arm of TDI.
- SSI Scuba Schools International. Certification agency based in Colorado. Merged with NASDS in 1999.
- TDI Technical Diving International. Maine-based certification agency for technical aspects of recreational scuba.
- YMCA Young Men's Christian Association. Maintains an international scuba training and certification program, along with many other family-oriented activities.
- AI assistant instructor
- AOW Advanced Open Water. A common title for the recommended training course following entry-level scuba certification. An overview course consisting of five to 10 academic modules and associated open-water dives, each of which provides an introduction to a different aspect of scuba diving, such as night diving or compass navigation.
- AWARE Aquatic World Awareness, Responsibility and Education. A PADI nonprofit environmental foundation that provides financial support for aquatic preservation endeavors, develops conservation-oriented educational materials and initiates public awareness campaigns.
- CD Course Director. Level of instructor certification authorized to conduct instructor training.
- ICUE International Conference on Underwater Education. Annual educational conference sponsored by NAUI.
- IDC Instructor Development Course. A class or series of classes designed to advance the knowledge and skill level of divers so they can qualify as scuba instructors.
- IE Instructor Evaluation or Instructor Evaluator. The multi-day test for scuba instructor, or the person who oversees that test.
- ITC Instructor Training Course. Class in which divers advance their knowledge and skill, and qualify as scuba instructors.
- OW Open Water. The most common designation for the initial scuba certification that results in qualification to dive without supervision.
- OWSI Open Water Scuba Instructor. Scuba instructor certified to teach snorkeling and scuba from introductory levels up through differing leadership levels depending on agency.
- RDP PADI's recreational dive planner, a specialized dive table.
- SLAM Scuba Lifesaving and Accident Management. YMCA diver rescue course.
- URP Universal Referral Program. A process by which students of several training agencies can complete open-water 1 certification dives with instructors from other member agencies. Members: IDEA, NASDS/SSI, NAUI, PDIC, YMCA.
Other Organizations and Activities
- AAUS American Academy of Underwater Sciences. Nonprofit corporation that establishes and maintains standards for the scientific diving community and engages in research on safe scientific diving practices.
- ANSI American National Standards Institute. Private, nonprofit membership organization that administers and facilitates consensus for the U.S. private-sector voluntary standardization system. The first ANSI minimum training standards for the scuba industry were established in 1986.
- CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. U.S. government agency within the Department of Health and Human Services which, among other functions, maintains the Travelers Hotline, with information on geographic distribution of diseases and inoculations required/recommended for travel to other countries.
- CMC Center for Marine Conservation. An environmental organization.
- CTC Canadian Transportation Commission. Canadian government agency that regulates the manufacture, testing and transport of scuba cylinders. The CTC stamp appears on scuba cylinders along with the DOT stamp. (See below.)
- DAN Divers Alert Network. Nonprofit organization that provides emergency and informational advice and assistance for diving injuries, promotes diving-related medical research and education, collects injury statistics, and offers dive safety services to its members and the diving community.
- DCIEM Defense and Civil Institute of Environmental Medicine. Canada's "center of expertise for defense research and development in human performance and protection, human-systems integration and operational medicine." Developed procedures for dive tables published by Universal Dive Techtronics (UDT), Inc.
- DEMA Dive Equipment & Marketing Association. Not-for-profit organization of equipment manufacturers, training agencies, dive media, travel companies and dive retailers that seeks to promote scuba diving and snorkeling to the general public.
- DOT Department of Transportation. U.S. government agency that regulates the manufacture, testing and transport of compressed gas containers, including scuba cylinders. DOT stamp appears on scuba tanks, followed by the alphabetic designation for the steel or aluminum alloy the tank is made of and the maximum fill pressure.
- DTIA Dive Travel Industries Association. Trade association for resorts, dive operators, tourism boards, live-aboards, retailers, and airlines serving the scuba and snorkeling vacation industry.
- EPA Environmental Protection Agency. U.S. government agency responsible for environmental concerns. Involved in the permitting processes for placing artificial reefs and determining usage of marine resources.
- FKNMS Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary. Protected marine reserve.
- GAFC Great American Fish Count. Census of fish species diversity, abundance and distribution conducted annually (July 1-14) in Canada, Belize and several U.S. locations by hundreds of trained volunteer divers.
- MMPA Marine Mammal Protection Act; U.S. Government legislation that protects marine mammals.
- NABS National Association of Black Scuba Divers. International, multi-chapter dive club for African-American divers.
- NMFS National Marine Fisheries Service. The arm of NOAA (see below) that administers programs to conserve and manage living marine resources. Involved in the process of designation and management of marine protected areas.
- NOAA National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. U.S. government agency whose mission is to predict environmental changes, and manage and conserve the nation's coastal and marine resources.
- NUADC National Underwater Accident Data Center. Accident and injury data collection project active at the University of Rhode Island from the early '70s to the early '90s, when it joined with DAN. Discontinued as separate entity in 1994.
- OSHA Occupational Health and Safety Administration. U.S. government organization responsible for establishing and enforcing workplace safety standards. May exert jurisdiction over work procedures and conditions of scuba professionals if it determines that safety is at issue.
- REEF Reef Environmental Education Foundation. Nonprofit organization that trains and coordinates activities of volunteer divers who gather census data on fish populations. Compiles data, which is stored in an international database for use by marine scientists.
- RSTC Recreational Scuba Training Council. Association of scuba training agencies that provides a vehicle for development of voluntary industry-wide training standards. Secretariat for the ANSI committee on diving instructional standards and safety (Z375). Members: IDEA, NASDS/SSI, PADI, PDIC, YMCA.
- WSA Women's Scuba Association. Trade association that seeks to represent the needs and interests of women divers to the industry and the media, including maintenance of Women's Equipment Test Teams (WETT) for evaluation of scuba gear designed for women.
- UHMS Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society. International organization of physicians and scientists; the leading source of information on diving and hyperbaric (pressure-related) medicine physiology worldwide.
- USCG United States Coast Guard. Among other duties, enforces safe boat operation and inspection regulations in coastal and navigable inland waterways.
- USFWS United States Fish and Wildlife Service. Government agency that designates threatened and endangered species.
- USOA Underwater Society of America. Umbrella organization which, as a member of CMAS, serves as the U.S. sanctioning body for organized underwater sports com- petitions among its member clubs and councils. Disseminates information on issues affecting divers, from right-to-dive controversies to safety and conservation concerns.
- ABT actual bottom time/bottom time. The number of minutes that a diver spends underwater on a particular dive, calculated from beginning of descent to beginning of direct ascent to the surface or a safety stop. Used in calculating the repetitive group designation on a dive table.
- ACE Diamond Reef System© proficiency award.
- ADT actual dive time. Actual bottom time.
- ANDL adjusted no-decompression limit. Based on residual nitrogen levels, the maximum time that a diver can spend underwater on a repetitive dive without a required decompression stop.
- ASL American sign language. Comprised of expressive hand signals, this language of the deaf has proven to be a useful skill for underwater communication between recreational divers.
- CESA controlled emergency swimming ascent. A skill learned in basic certification class. In an out-of-air emergency, a diver ascends at a normal rate while exhaling continuously.
- EAD equivalent air depth. When diving on Nitrox, less nitrogen is absorbed at a given depth than when using air. For example, the same amount of nitrogen would be absorbed on a Nitrox dive to 63 fsw (feet of sea water/19 m) as an air dive to 50 fsw (15 m) with the same bottom time.
- EAN Enriched Air Nitrox. A N2/O2 (nitrogen/oxygen) breathing gas containing more oxygen (typically 32 or 36 percent) and less nitrogen than plain air. Used by recreational divers to increase either bottom time or safety margin by decreasing the amount of nitrogen absorbed. Requires predive testing of gas mixture and adherence to strict depth restrictions.
- EDT effective bottom time. In DCIEM tables, the ABT multiplied by the RF.
- MOD/ODL maximum operating depth/oxygen depth limit. The deepest that a diver can safely go using a particular gas mixture. For example, the MOD for EAN32 (32 per- cent oxygen) is 132 fsw (40 m).
- NDL no-decompression limit. On dive tables, maximum bottom time that allows a diver to return directly to the surface without a mandatory decompression stop. Continually remaining at depth close to these limits is considered dangerous.
- PG pressure group. The letter on a dive table that denotes the theoretical amount of gas still in solution in the diver's body. Used in repetitive dive calculations.
- RF repetitive factor. Term used in DCIEM tables to denote amount of nitrogen loading in tissues.
- RG/RDG repetitive group/repetitive dive group. In DCIEM and ACUC dive tables, a letter designation assigned according to time and depth of dive. Used in repetitive dive calculations.
- RNT residual nitrogen time. Bottom time reduction on repetitive dives due to nitrogen left in tissues from previous dives, expressed in minutes.
- SCR surface consumption rate. Measure used in calculations for determining air consumption rate at various depths.
- SIT surface interval time. Time that must be spent on the surface between dives to off-gas residual nitrogen.
- TBT total bottom time. RNT plus ABT. Used in calculating ANDL.
- TNT total nitrogen time. RNT plus ADT.
- AAS alternate air source. Secondary air source taking a variety of configurations: an extra second-stage regulator (octopus) attached by a low-pressure hose from the first-stage regulator, an extra second stage (AIR) integrated into the low-pressure inflator of the buoyancy compensator (BC), or a totally redundant air system such as a pony bottle or Spare Air©.
- AIR alternate inflation regulator. Second-stage AAS incorporated into the low-pressure inflation mechanism of a BC.
- BC/BCD buoyancy compensator/buoyancy compensation device. The item of required scuba gear that secures the air cylinder to the diver and provides a means to control buoyancy. Modern BC's consists of a jacket-style vest plus one or more air bladders that can be inflated orally or with air from the scuba tank via a low-pressure inflator mechanism.
- BIU back inflation unit. A type of BC with all the floatation positioned behind the diver's back.
- DIN Deutsches Institut für Normung. Organization that recommends European manufacturing guidelines. Design of tank valve popular in Europe in which the first- stage regulator screws into the valve.
- DPV diver propulsion vehicle. Underwater "scooter" that allows a diver to cover an increased distance underwater.
- GPS global positioning system. A worldwide system of navigation based on a ring of stationary satellites. Small, even handheld, GPS devices can be used to accurately determine speed and direction of travel, and pinpoint dive site locations.
- HP high pressure. Stamped into first-stage regulators, HP designates the connection port for the high-pressure hose, which leads to the gauge console.
- Hydro The common name for the hydrostatic test required on scuba cylinders every five years to determine whether the tank walls are still strong enough for safe usage.
- LP low pressure. Stamped into first-stage regulators, LP designates connection ports for hoses leading to second-stage regulators, BC inflate/deflate mechanisms and dry suit inflator mechanisms.
- PFD personal flotation device. Life jacket, life preserver. A piece of individual emergency equipment that is required on boats to provide each passenger with positive buoyancy on the surface.
- SASY/SASA Supplied Air Snorkeling for Youth/Supplied Air Snorkeling for Adults. BC-like PFD mounted with small compressed air cylinder and regulator that allows snorkeler to breathe comfortably on the surface but prohibits him from descending.
- SPG submersible pressure gauge. Required scuba gear that displays the amount of air pressure in the scuba cylinder; can be either analog or digital.
- TLS trilaminate (bonded triple layer) material used in dry suit construction.
- VIP Visual Inspection Program. Standardized visual tank inspection program widely used to denote any internal visual scuba tank inspection performed by a trained equipment technician; should be performed annually.
- ata atmosphere absolute. Denotes gauge pressure plus the weight of the atmosphere. Used in gas calculations.
- atm atmosphere. A measure of pressure. One atmosphere (14.7psi/1.013 bar) represents the weight of the Earth's atmosphere at sea level. The weight (pressure) of 33 feet (10 m) of salt water or 34 feet (10 m) of fresh water = 1 atmosphere.
- bar the metric unit for measuring pressure. A full scuba tank at 3,000 psi reads approximately 200 bar on a metric gauge.
- BTU British Thermal Units or calories; measurement of heat.
- C Celsius. Metric unit of temperature. C = (F -32) x .556.
- cf cubic foot. A measure of volume. Scuba cylinders are manufactured in standard sizes, such as 30, 50, 72 and 80 cf.
- cm centimeter. 1 cm = .39 inches.
- F Fahrenheit. The temperature scale used in the United States. F = (C/.556) + 32.
- ffw feet of fresh water. Measurement of depth in fresh water.
- fsw feet of sea water. Measurement of depth in sea water.
- fpm feet per minute. Measurement of distance used in diving to define ascent and descent rates. Maximum recommended ascent rate is 60 to 20 fpm (18 to 6 mpm) depending on depth.
- IP intermediate pressure.
- Kilo/kg kilogram. Metric measure of weight. 1 kg = 2.21 pounds.
- Km kilometer. Metric measurement of distance. 1 km = .62 miles.
- m meter. Metric measurement of distance. 1 m = 3.28 feet.
- PO2 partial pressure of oxygen. The proportion of the total gas pressure attributable to the oxygen content of the mixture; for example, air at sea level 1.0 ata = .21 PO2 + .79 PN2. (Air is approximately 21 percent oxygen and 79 percent nitrogen.)
- psi pounds per square inch. Measure of pressure indicating the force exerted on a surface of one square inch. 14.7 psi = 1 atm = 1 kg/cm2
- psia pounds per square inch absolute. Measure of total pressure, gauge plus atmospheric, used in pressure calculations; for example, the pressure at a depth of 33 fsw is 29.4 psia (14.7 psi for 1 atm water and 14.7 psi for the weight of the atmosphere at sea level).
- psig pounds per square inch gauge. The pressure reading that appears on SPGs.
- ABCs airway, breathing, circulation. When giving first aid, these should always be checked immediately, in the order listed. That is, "Establish an airway, check for breathing and pulse."
- AGE arterial gas embolism. Commonly called "air embolism," this pressure-related injury can occur on ascent when a diver fails to exhale or exhales insufficiently, causing expanding air to rupture lung tissues and enter the bloodstream. If circulation is blocked by the air bubbles, a strokelike injury occurs. Requires recompression in a chamber.
- CNS central nervous system. The injury site associated with the more severe, type II, decompression sickness.
- CO carbon monoxide. Can cause unconsciousness and death if found in greater-than-normal quantities in breathing gas.
- CO2 carbon dioxide. Major component of exhaled air. Buildup in the respiratory system stimulates breathing. Excess can result in unconsciousness.
- CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation. First aid life-support technique for maintaining pulse and ventilation in a patient who is not breathing and has no pulse. Consists of alternating rescue breathing and chest compressions. Vital skill for divers, taught in basic first aid classes.
- DCI decompression illness. Umbrella term for either decompression sickness (DCS) or arterial gas embolism (AGE). The immediate treatment for both is the same: Check ABCs, administer oxygen, alert EMS, and contact DAN.
- DCS decompression sickness. Also known as "the bends," this pressure-related injury occurs when nitrogen dissolved in the tissues during a dive bubbles out of solution into the body's tissues. Can occur from ascending too fast or staying too long at a given depth. Requires treatment in a recompression chamber.
- EMS emergency medical services. First aid and ambulance services in the United States.
- EMT emergency medical technician. Minimum medical qualification for most EMS personnel.
- PFO patent foramen ovale. A heart defect that can allow blood to pass directly from the right to left side of the heart, bypassing the lungs. It is thought that this may increase the severity of a DCS incident.
- ASA/ISO American Standards Association/International Standards Organization. Sets manufacturing standards for film speed, e.g., film speeds: 25, 50, 64, 100, 200, 400, etc.
- CFWA close focus wide angle. In underwater still photography, a close-up shot taken with a wide-angle lens. Produces an image with a prominent foreground subject set against an expansive background, often blue water.
- CU close-up shot. In underwater video, explodes the image onto the screen, brings out detail.
- GN guide number. Supplied by underwater strobe manufacturers, GNs indicate the brightness of a particular strobe under ideal conditions. Used as a starting reference in setting camera aperture (f-stop).
- LS long shot. In underwater video, a wide-angle view that establishes the setting of a scene.
- MS medium shot. In underwater video, view that highlights the activity in a scene.
- SLR single lens reflex. Type of still camera with a viewfinder arrangement that shows the photographer virtually the same image that is projected through the lens to the film.
- VIIS Video Home System. A standard format for video cameras and tapes. Also S-VHS, super VHS and VHS-C, compact VHS.
- TTL through the lens. A system of light metering that adjusts strobe output for cam- era shutter and aperture settings.